Bearing witness: The annihilation of Homs, its Old City,its cultural and religious sites, its history, heritage and earth: Introduction

Can life spring out of death, can history be reborn out of its ashes, can heritage be restored? Can a city reduced to debris and melted concrete rise again? Can archaeology exist without archaeology because it has either been looted, bulldozed or annihilated?  Are the old cities of Aleppo and Homs going to be rebuilt again as edifices made of the infamous concrete of which our memories have retained and will retain the most nightmarish images of a substance widely used throughout the world , yet destined to natural       disintegration and degradation, even without disasters or wars? the disintegration of concrete upon impact to piercing skeletons of rubble heaped upon rubble has become the bane of Syria now and it will be in the future. I am thinking of Old Aleppo crafted out of dressed stone and of Old Homs crafted out of basalt and white stone; I am also thinking of the old walls, gates, hammams, suqs and houses, of the traditional builders, crafts handed down in uninterrupted chains of endurability and of memories of lives stored in houses and quarters hundreds of years old. Is the living history of the ancient cities, towns and villages of Syria, annihilated by the massive brutal power of the war machines which are being wielded mindlessly by the killers of man and civilization, is this history to disappear without a trace so that the archaeologists of the future will find only horrendous featureless mounds of debris and rubble? 

I am having something akin to metal fatigue. Call it spiritual fatigue if you wish, but my own edifice is falling apart as I sink into the quagmire of destruction in order to document these historical and heritage  losses, while at the same time invoking them as they were and giving them life in order to resurrect them and offer my readers a glimpse of their past bustling richness and vitality.

Although, it is required to maintain a certain measure of detachment and objectivity when attempting to document and compile records of destruction  to historical monuments, nothing approaching that kind of neutrality is fitting for me. I am an artist and a writer recording the destruction of my people’s heritage. I am involved and it is with this involvement that I shall mourn the beauty of pattern, form and well-wrought stone, marble and  pilla, or  lovingly designed arch, facade and  courtyard. In the beginning I mourned the people and their children. Now I mourn what they have created over thousands of years.

The dehumanization,  depopulation, destructuring, detexturing, and most of all the decivilization of Syria, is taking place under the very eyes of either a silent, indifferent, uncaring  world, or it may be, a calculating,  scheming world that measures its reactions and actions by self interest, geopolitical ambitions and plain undiluted egoism. Syria is being decivilized to the extent that  its history of civilization stands in the gravest peril of writing some of the  bitterest and most tragic chapters it has ever written. Is the world insane or deranged?  Do they want a regime that has perfected the art of annihilation and decivilization  to survive in order to spare themselves some unpleasant future headaches? A whole strata of the layers of civilizations that Syria  has played host to is being systematically insanely removed,i.e. that of Arab Islamic civilization. Once all traces of this top layer of the civilizations of Syria is removed with all its landmarks and cultural edifices, some of them surviving monuments of older civilizations, once a state of rootlessness is meticulously and thoroughly accomplished  in a waste land of debris and rubble , the Syrian regime will start rebuilding its brave new world with the help of the the Russians and with the help of the Iranians, as it has already planned and is planning.

The Russian architects will step in and continue the tradition of ugly tasteless blocks of perishable concrete  that was started during the reign of Assad the father. Only this time, the opportunity is limitless. And Syria will have its mini Russia of jungles of concrete springing over the graveyards of the Syrian cities, towns and villages, while the Iranians who cannot boast one decent original great contemporary monument will drown Syria in cheap, fake Safavid decadent glory, thus adding a veneer of foreign historical  pastiche to the jungles of concrete.   A new generation of contractors and war opportunists will come into being, forming the army of manipulators and designers of this brave new world..  The question is whether the homeless,penniless poor of Syria who lost their traditional homes or their slums will have a place in this brave new world? 

Therefore, before the axe of rebuilding falls, creating the promised land of urban featureless soulless jungles of cement and concrete;or before you get used to the annihilated monuments of Syria, forming permanent desolate wildernesses,  let me conjure up with the help of compiled images the fallen churches, mosques, old houses and quarters, gates and walls so that when I show you images of their devastation you can set this devastation against their former lives and the role they played in the history of art and civilization.

Finally before I shift to seriously attempt the task of recording the architectural and cultural damage criminally perpetrated against the city of Homs, I would like to quote this extract from Alice Freidemann, while allowing myself a nostalgic final eulogy of appraisal of the durability of stone set against the  perishability  and  mutability of concrete:

Why try to rebuild our infrastructure and create vastly more greenhouse gases? Cement is the third largest source of CO2 after autos and coal-fueled power plants.   Large amounts of energy are required to produce cement, around 450 grams of coal per 900 grams of cement produced, according to the World Coal Association. Limestone is heated with fossil fuels up to 2,642 degrees Fahrenheit and causes 7% of global carbon dioxide emissions per year…A wasteland. There will be absurd amounts of concrete rubble — what the hell are people in the future going to do with 300 billion tons of concrete? Build sheep fences?…A wasteland. There will be absurd amounts of concrete rubble — what the hell are people in the future going to do with 300 billion tons of concrete? Build sheep fences?  Alice Friedemann

Melting concrete

The writer was not thinking of wars, bombardment, shelling and Scud missiles, unleashed on concrete and stone alike. It did not occur to her that it is not time alone that renders concrete into disaster areas of melting, weeping, fluid  hideousness and indispensable rubbish. I am not an expert, but I think recycling the debris of concrete will only be a recipe for disasters to come.

Please see


The images below are images taken by activists or journalists and posted mainly to Facebook

©Alisar Iram

Debris, rubble and an eternity of smashed collapsed concrete

About alisariram

I am an artist, a writer and a researcher. I know Arabic and English . I am interested in music and art of every description. I like to describe myself as the embodiment of a harmonious marriage between two cultures which I value and treasure.
This entry was posted in Alisar's notes and articles, Annihilation, Archaeology, architecture, Bearing witness, Concrete, Destruction of cities and habitats, Homs, Humanity, photographs, Ruins, Syria, Syrian Archaeology and antiquities, Syrian army, Syrian regime and tagged , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

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